I now have, and am actively using, three 50 liter (15 gallon) indigo vats, in addition to a 100 liter (30 gallon) henna vat.
I am loving the size of the 50 liter vat! The vessel is tall and narrow. It’s just the right shape for a vat, with a relatively reduced surface area, and a great size for studio immersion dyeing. I have been dyeing samples, skeins of yarn, my own shibori work, and even clothing in those vats.
Like most dyers, I began with what I then thought was a “large” 5 gallon vat. That is still the most practical size for teaching workshops and I am guessing that it’s the size/shape that many dyers start with – and most stay with.
But, I don’t think it’s the best for studio work. IT’S TOO SMALL! When working with natural indigo vats, whether they are fermentation vats or quick reduction vats, there is going to be a lot of ‘sludge” at the bottom of the vat. With some vats this can be up to 1/3, or more, of the total depth. If you keep the textiles above that sludge , it doesn’t leave much room for dyeing. I am afraid that many dyers might tend to let their textiles dip into that “wasteland” at the bottom, exposing the fibers to concentrated lime or plant material. As a result, the dyeing is not as good as it could be.
A 50 liter/15 gallon liter vat is a much greater commitment than an 18 liter/ 5 gallon bucket, both in terms of financial investment and engagement. Yet, it is so much more useful and the dyeing is so much better! It’s also harder to just “give up” on a larger vat. You get better at maintaining and problem solving.
This is the vessel that I use. It’s a hard, durable plastic. I place it on a wheeled dolly. Otherwise it’s too difficult to move. A heavy duty plant caddy works just fine.
Sometimes I suspend samples and other small pieces from the top, using stainless hooks and wooden rods.
I have experimented with several types of baskets, nets, etc. to hold my larger textiles and keep them away from the bottom of the vat. I have finally settled on using a large, mesh laundry bag. It fits the vessel nicely, is flexible, re-usable, completely contains the textiles, and prevents things from getting lost in the bottom.
As I experiment with the fermentation vats, it becomes necessary to do a lot of dyeing. I am working on a long-term woven series, but regular dyeing has become increasingly important with my fermentation vats – and more possible, now that I am staying home.
I’ve taken some of my white or light colored clothing (too impractical to wear in the studio) and turned them into indigo dyed “dyeing clothes”. It took some courage to put a large linen tunic in the vat but I’ve been surprised at the even dyeing of even these larger, constructed pieces. I always do at least 3 long dips into the vat, which will assure that the dye “evens out”. I would never have attempted dyeing clothing in a 5 gallon vat.
Maintaining a good dyeing temperature is important, especially with the fermented vats. I have successfully used a band-type pail warmer and plugged it into a digital temperature controller. This has been keeping the vats at a regular temperature in my unheated studio.
AND if you are going to make wood ash lye for a fermentation vat, this is the time of year to connect with friends who are burning wood. You will want to identify someone who burns only hard wood in an efficient wood stove. That will result in the best ash for making lye.